THE RISE & FALL OF DAKKANI URDU IN SOUTH INDIA - By: S.M.PASHA

During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughlagh, DEVAGIRI was the capital of “DAKKHAN” {which means “SOUTH”}- the area comprising of Hyderabad, Golkunda, Gulbargah, Aurangabad, Bijapur, a portion of Mysore kingdom and the province of Chennapattinam ( now called Chennai). “DAKKANI URDU” was born and brought up in this area. It was the lingua franca of the masses. Naturally, therefore, sufis and Islamic scholars patronized it. It received due regard from the rulers too. During the regime of Feroze Shah Bahmani, a famous saint Khawja Syed Mohammed Hussain Gaysudaraz, Bandanawaaz did a lot to promote Dakkani Urdu.



From 1350 C.E. to 1857 C.E. DAKKANI URDU dominated the whole of DAKKAN { South India}. The following kingdoms patronized it by making it a Royal language:

1. Feroze Shah Bahmani kingdom – from 1350 to 1490 C.E.

2. Aadil Shahi kingdom – from 1490 to 1508 C.E.

3. Qhutub Shahi kingdom – from 1508 to 1686 C.E.

4. Nizam Jahi kingdom – from 1686 to 1708 C.E.

5. Nawab Wallajahi kingdom – from 1708 to the year of the First War of Independence viz., 1857

When the Mughals expanded their empire and penetrated into the extreme South , they gave DAKKANI URDU a new shape by mixing in it PERSIAN language. Shahenshah Aurangzeb began the process and Bahadur Shah Zafar gave finishing it touches.

DAKKANI URDU was not only the language of the common masses but popular with eminent Royal poets such as:

KHAWASI who wrote “NASBUL MULK”

TAYYABEE who wrote “DEH-O-GUL-ANDAAM”

NUSRATHI who wrote “GULSHAN-E-ISHQ”

MASHAFI who wrote “CHANDRA BAID MEYAAR” and

AAJIZ who wrote “LAAL-O-GOWHAR”’

The “”MASNAVI” in DAKKANI URDU by IBN-E-NASHAATI namely “PHOOL BAN”

I will be failing in my duty as a Research scholar if I fail to refute the false and baseless allegation that DAKKANI URDU is a language of the Indian Muslim community. Apart from Muslims, the MAHARATHAs, the KABILIWALLAHA, the KHOJAS, the MARWADIS, the RAJASTHANIS,the Punjabis, the REDDYS & NAIDUS, the SORASHTRIANS speak DAKKANI URDU but the dialect differs from place to place and one section of society and another.

Alas! DAKKANI URDU is on the last stage of its life in my State viz,, TAMILNADU. Strong and effective steps are taken by DAKKANI URDU WALLAHS to save their beloved language – delay will prove to be extremely dangerous.

Posted on Jul 07, 17 | 12:54 am