WHAT IS INDIA EXCEPT OF COW, GANGA RIVER AND RAM TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION IN AYODHYA POLITICS NOW-2019? - BY: BALBIR SINGH SOOCH-SIKH VICHAR MANCH

(A). COW POLITICS IN INDIA



(i). HIGHLIGHTED: Sacred cow is an idiom. It is an expression or phrase that is used without the literal meaning of being about a cow or religion.



1. Sacred cow is an idiom. It is an expression or phrase that is used without the literal meaning of being about a cow or religion. When spoken or written it means a person or a belief that has been respected for a long time. It has become sacred and people are then afraid or unwilling to criticise or question.

The idiom is based on the honor shown to cows in Hinduism. It is thought to have started in America in the early 20th century. Similar idioms are used in many other languages. Saying "holy cow!" when surprised may be another example.

Courtesy by: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2. In Hinduism, the cow is thought to be sacred, or deeply respected. Hindus do not worship cows[source?], although they are held in high esteem. The reason has to do with the cow's agricultural uses and gentle nature. Hindus rely heavily on cows for dairy products, for tilling fields, and for dung as a source of fuel and fertilizer. So, the cow is seen as a 'caretaker' or maternal figure. One Hindu goddess is usually shown in the form of a cow: Bhoomi (ভূমি). She represents the Earth.



Most Hindus respect the cow for her gentle nature. This represents the main teaching of Hinduism, which is doing no harm to an animal (ahimsa). The cow also represents butter (ghee) and strength. The cow is honored in society, and many Hindus do not eat beef (cow meat). Beef consumption is more prevalent among Hindus in the larger Indian subcontinent, for example, Tamil Hindus in Malaysia. In the majority of Indian states it is illegal to eat or possess cow meat.



Courtesy by: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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(B). GANGA RIVER POLITICS IN INDIA

(i). HIGHLIGHTED: The Ganges was ranked as the fifth most polluted river of the world in 2007. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The levels of fecal coliform from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to corruption, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.



1. Ganges: The Ganges also Ganga , is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is the third largest river in the world by discharge.



2. The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindus. It is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshipped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism. It has also been important historically, with many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Kannauj, Kampilya, Kara, Prayag or Allahabad, Kashi, Pataliputra or Patna, Hajipur, Munger, Bhagalpur, Murshidabad, Baharampur, Nabadwip, Saptagram , Kolkata and Dhaka) located on its banks.



3. The Ganges was ranked as the fifth most polluted river of the world in 2007. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The levels of fecal coliform from human waste in the waters of the river near Varanasi are more than 100 times the Indian government's official limit. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to corruption, lack of technical expertise, poor environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities.

Courtesy by: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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(C). RAM TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION IN AYODHYA POLITICS IN INDIA



(i) HIGHLIGHTED:A section of Hindus claim that the exact site of Rama's birthplace is where the Babri Masjid once stood in the present-day Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. According to this theory, the Mughals demolished a Hindu shrine that marked the spot, and constructed a mosque in its place.

(ii) People opposed to this theory state that such claims arose only in the 18th century, and that there is no evidence for the spot being the birthplace of Rama.



(iii) Several other sites, including places in other parts of India, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nepal, have been proposed as birthplaces of Rama.



1. Ram Janmabhoomi: Ram Janmabhoomi (literally, "Rama's birthplace") is the name given to the site that many Hindus believe to be the birthplace of Rama, the 7th avatar of the Hindu deity Vishnu.



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2. The Ramayana states that the location of Rama's birthplace is on the banks of the Sarayu river in the city of Ayodhya. A section of Hindus claim that the exact site of Rama's birthplace is where the Babri Masjid once stood in the present-day Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. According to this theory, the Mughals demolished a Hindu shrine that marked the spot, and constructed a mosque in its place. People opposed to this theory state that such claims arose only in the 18th century, and that there is no evidence for the spot being the birthplace of Rama.



3. The political, historical and socio-religious debate over the history and location of the Babri Mosque, and whether a previous temple was demolished or modified to create it, is known as the Ayodhya dispute.



4. In 1992, the demolition of Babri Masjid by Hindu nationalists triggered widespread Hindu-Muslim violence. Since then, the archaeological excavations have indicated the presence of a temple beneath the mosque rubble, but whether the structure was a Rama shrine (or a temple at all) remains disputed.





5. Several other sites, including places in other parts of India, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nepal, have been proposed as birthplaces of Rama.



Courtesy by: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



(2)



1. The Ramayana, a Hindu epic whose earliest portions date back to 1st millennium BCE, states that the capital of Rama was Ayodhya. A section of Hindus claim that the site of the now-demolished Babri Mosque in Ayodhya is the exact birthplace of Rama. The mosque was constructed during 1528-29 by Mir Baqi, a commander of the Mughal emperor Babur.



2. The earliest extant account of the mosque's connection to the birthplace of Rama comes from the European Jesuit missionary Joseph Tiefenthaler, who visited the site during 1766-1771. Johann Bernoulli translated his account from French, and included it in his 1788 work. According to this account, either Aurangazeb or Babur had demolished the Ramkot fortress, including the house that was considered as the birthplace of Rama by Hindus. He further states that a mosque was constructed in its place, but the Hindus continued to offer prayers at a mud platform that marked the birthplace of Rama. In 1810, Francis Buchanan visited the site, and stated that the structure destroyed was a temple dedicated to Rama, not a house. Many subsequent sources state that the mosque was constructed after demolishing a temple.



3. Before the 1940s, the Babri Masjid was called Masjid-i-Janmasthan ("mosque of the birthplace"), including in the official documents such as revenue records. Shykh Muhammad Azamat Ali Kakorawi Nami (1811–1893) wrote: "the Babari mosque was built up in 923(?) A.H. under the patronage of Sayyid Musa Ashiqan in the Janmasthan temple in Faizabad-Avadh, which was a great place of (worship) and capital of Rama’s father".



4. H.R. Neville wrote that the Janmasthan temple "was destroyed by Babur and replaced by a mosque." He also wrote "The Janmasthan was in Ramkot and marked the birthplace of Rama. In 1528 A.D. Babur came to Ayodhya and halted here for a week. He destroyed the ancient temple and on its site built a mosque, still known as Babur's mosque. The materials of the old structure [i.e., the temple] were largely employed, and many of the columns were in good preservation."



Courtesy by: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(3)

Opposition to the claim:



1. A section of historians, such as R. S. Sharma, state that such claims of Babri Masjid site being the birthplace of Rama sprang up only after the 18th century. Sharma states that Ayodhya emerged as a place of Hindu pilgrimage only in medieval times, since ancient texts do not mention it as a pilgrim centre. For example, chapter 85 of the Vishnu Smriti lists 52 places of pilgrimage, which do not include Ayodhya.[8] Sharma also notes that Tulsidas, who wrote the Ramcharitmanas in 1574 at Ayodhya, does not mention it as a place of pilgrimage. Rambhadracharya, on the other hand, has quoted a work of Tulsidas known as Dohā Śataka and is recorded in Allahbad High Court's verdict which clearly states the demolition of a temple, and building of a mosque.[citation needed]



2. Many critics also claim that the present-day Ayodhya was originally a Buddhist site, based on its identification with Saketa described in Buddhist texts. According to historian Romila Thapar, ignoring the Hindu mythological accounts, the first historic mention of the city dates back to the 7th century, when the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang described it as a Buddhist site.

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Posted on Jun 12, 17 | 12:10 am